Hello, everyone and welcome to chapter one of the windows: command-line interface, I’m mr. Mike you know the windows. Command-Line interface is part of the Windows operating system. Now, over the last 10 or 15 years, we’ve had many Windows, operating systems, windows, 95 windows, 98 Windows, 2000 Windows, XP Windows, Vista and there’s many more and for us to really understand the windows command-line interface. We must understand the windows, operating systems, disk file and folder structure.
So let’s look at that now. The Windows operating system starts with the disk and all of our files and folders are stored on the disk. Now, what are some examples of the disk? Ok? Well, the most common example would be our CD ROMs and DVD roms, ok on our CD ROMs and DVD roms.
We have all of our files and folders. We have our music files, our word files, our system files or Windows, operating system files. All of these files and folders are stored on the disk, and so that’s the Windows File folder structure. We need to really understand you know what are learner’s examples of the discs. Ok, another example of a disk would be a floppy disk matter of fact.
If I open up the floppy disk and pull out the insides you’ll see that we have a disk inside and this disk is actually a floppy disk. Imagine that okay now this floppy disk has files and folder stored on it, just like your cd-rom discs, but where is the Windows operating systems, files and folders stored, and the answer to that is they are stored on our hard drive. Now I’ve gone into a computer. I opened up the computer tower case and I took out a hard drive and you’ll see that inside of the hard drive. If I take off the cover, you’ll see that we have this, there might be one or more disks and all of our files and folders are stored on this disk inside of the computer and again the files and folders would be our program files, our system files, Our music files, our game file, and especially the Windows operating system files.
So we really so to really understand the commitment windows, command-line interface. We must be very comfortable with the windows folder structure, starting at the disk and then on. The disk are all of our files and folders. Now, one of the best ways to look at these. The disk files and folder structures in our Windows operating system is actually to use a program called Windows Explorer.
So let’s go ahead and get into our computers and we’ll look at Windows, Explorer and examine our disk file and folder structure. All right now, let’s go ahead and open up Windows Explorer and to take a look at our windows, disk file and folder structure. Now to open Windows Explorer, you can click on the start button and you can click on all programs going to the accessories folder and then you can click on Windows Explorer. Another way you can open Windows Explorer is to simply right-click on the start, button and left-click on Explorer that will also open the windows explorer. Another way you can open Windows Explorer is to click on the start button and then move up to computer and click on computer, and this is the way that I’m going to start Windows Explorer if you’re using Windows, XP you’ll click on the start button and you Click on my computer now when windows explorer opens you’ll notice that we have the left side and the right side.
The left side is what we call our left pane. The right side is the right pane. Now. What I want you to do is go ahead and click on the computer object on the left pane or on the left side. Now, depending how your Windows Explorer opens and there’s a number of different views.
You’Ll want to scroll up and down on the left side and try to find your computer and go ahead and click on the computer. When you do that, it actually shows us our disks, and you can see here. I’Ve clicked on computer and our disks are displayed and remember with our windows and file folder structure we start at the disk and then on. Our disk is going to be all of our files and folders, which is going to be very important when we’re looking at our Windows command line. Now on your Windows Explorer, you might notice that the icons over on the right pane are not the same as the ones that I have in order to change that you can go up to the View, menu and slide the slide bar up and down to change.
The views of your icons and I am going to leave mine at the larger icons a little bit easier for us to see. Now, let’s go back and look at the right side and actually look at our disks. Okay, now the first one we’re going to see here is our floppy disk. The next one over here is our local disk or that’s our hard drive for all of our Windows. Operating system files are, and the majority of our program files and Word documents and music files and game files again stored on our hard drive, which is the disk, the local disk.
Another disk that we have is going to be our cd-rom discs or our DVD ROM discs over here we have what’s called our thumb, drive or a flash drive that also shows up as a disk. The next one here is a removable hard drive. It’S a hard drive, that’s actually plugged into the back of the computer, but it’s again remember it’s a disk and then these two icons here are map network drives or map network disks and we’ll talk more about mathematical network drives as we move along now. You’Ll also notice that another name for this is going to be drives notice here that we have the floppy disk drive AC. We call this the floppy drive.
This is the local disk or what’s called the hard drive, and then we’ve got the cd-rom discs, which is called the cd-rom drive. We’Ve got our flash driver, our thumb drive, but to the computer into the Windows operating system. It’S still a disc or looks like a disk, so don’t be confused when people use the term disk and drive interchangeably because they are they’re very much the same thing. So again we have the floppy drive the hard drive, the CD I’m Drive. We’Ve got flash drives external hard drives, so again don’t be confused by using the disc in the drive now.
The other thing I’d like you to notice is that with the Windows operating system, each disk or drive is assigned a letter notice. The floppy disk drive has the letter A assigned to it. This is by default. In always the case. The floppy disk drive always gets the letter, A assigned to it, the local disk drive or the local hard drive is assign the letter C.
This is always the case by default, the Windows operating system gets installed on our C Drive. That’S where we have our Windows operating system files. The D Drive can have different letters from here on, the letters can change. The cd-rom drive in this case is assigned D. If you had two cd-rom drives, it might be D and E.
Our flash drive even that’s plugged in our little flash drive thumb drives. This one has been assigned the letter e, but it can be other letters. The removable, hard drive, that’s been assigned the letter F and even our map network drives, which again we’ll talk about later, our assign letters so disks and drive or assign letters, and this is how Windows keeps track of the of the disks and where our files and Folders are because they’re put on the drive letters, and these are called drive letters now when we use the Windows command line. This is how we’re going to access our disks is we’re going to do it by the drive letter. If we want to access the floppy drive we’re going to type the letter A if we want to access the cd-rom drive we’re going to type the letter D, we’re going to access our local hard drive, we’re going to type the letter C.
So we’re going to be doing it by letters, so it’s very important for us to understand this drive letter and disk in Drive format when we get to the command line. Now, let’s go ahead and look at the file and folder structure of the Windows operating system. Now, if we go over to the left hand side, the left, pane click on the little arrow in front of computer, as you click on the little arrow in front of computer you’ll, see it expands in can tracks the objects underneath the computer object and underneath there Again is going to be our drives or our disks and I’m going to go ahead and click on our local disk C enter there. You can go ahead and do that on your computer. If I click on the local disk C, we’re going to see that are the files and folders that are on the local disk C are displayed on the right-hand side.
If I click on the little arrow in front of the local disk C, it actually displays those folders again. Those are the folders that are on local disk C. It doesn’t show you on the left-hand side, it does not show you the files. Only the right-hand side would show you the files and the folders now you’ll notice that all these folders are on our local disk C. As I scroll down here, you can see, we’ve got the I net Pub folder the I net pub folder here.
It’S also displayed over here the Intel folder. It’S also displayed over here the jam folder. These are the same folders as I go down, I’m going to go ahead and click on my my my folder inside of the my folder on the right hand, side or display the folders and files within the my folder. If I click on the put down the arrow in front of the my folder again, you can see we see the folders again there within the my folder. If I click on the documents folder the folder beneath the my folder, which actually is called a subfolder, the my the Documents folder – is a subfolder to the my folder and again, if I click on the documents, folder we’re going to see, there’s other folders inside of The Documents folder, I can click on the arrow and see those again.
Then I can click on the dad folder underneath there and you can see the dad folder again has more subfolders and more files. These folders and files are within the dad file. Folder. Sorry now this folder structure is very important to understand. We start with a disc underneath our disc we have folders, then, with underneath the folders we have subfolders and underneath more folders or more subfolders and files.
So this is how the windows file and folder structure works is this: is this starting out with the disk and then having folders and files and then subfolders and files and then more subfolders and files? So it’s very important for us to understand that now another way you can look at it is. If I go up to the address bar and click on the address bar, you can see it actually outlines this path structure. Now you can see to the dad folder here: I’ve got the dad folder highlighted up here in our address bar. We start off with our C or that’s our local hard drive our disc, and then we move to the my folder and then we move to the Documents folder and they move it.
The dad folder. This is the path to the dad folder, see my folder documents and dad within the dad folder. Of course, we have other files and folders. This is the same structure that we’re going to be seeing when we move to our Windows, command line and start working with the command line. So, let’s go ahead now and move to our Windows, command line and start seeing how the windows, file and folder structure looks as we interface with the Windows command line.
Okay. So let’s look at the disk file and folder structure with the Windows command line. Now remember: how to open the Windows command line, we’re going to click on the start, button click on all programs, click on accessories and we can click on command prompt. Now, the more popular way to do it to open the command line by administrators and technicians is to type CMD in the Start. Dialog box press Enter or you can simply click CMD from the programs list, and this will open up our Windows command line now notice by default.
We immediately get this path now. This default path might be different on your computer, but we immediately will notice this disk file in folders sure it starts off. With our C Drive. We know this is our local discard drive and then on the C Drive we have our users folder a subfolder of the users. Folder is the mighty folder.
Now, when we’re looking at and remember, we said that the disks or the drives are always represented by a letter. So here’s the letter C. So we know we’re working with our local hard drive and at the command line interface we’re always going to have a colon. The two dots associated with our drive letter, so these always work together and then the separation between the disk and the folder or between folders and folders, is going to be the backslash. So we have our again.
We have our disk C, our local hard drive and then the users folder is a folder, that’s on our C Drive and then the mighty folder is a subfolder of the users folder and then the cursor represents where we’d be typing our commands or where we’re working From and we’re working from, the Mike T folder now, the first question is: is how would we move between different disks or between different drives and if we remember each disk is assigned a drive letter for each drive is assigned a drive letter. So if we wanted to move to the D Drive – and in my case the D Drive is my cd-rom drive, all I would have to do is type D and remember the colon is always associated with the drive. Now my cd-rom drive is been assigned. The letter D, if I type D, colon and press, ENTER I’m now working from my D Drive remember on my computer. I also have an e drive, which is my flash drive or my thumb drive.
So I can simply type e colon and press ENTER again and now I’m working from my thumb drive and I could go and look at files and folders on my thumb drive. If I wanted to get back to the C Drive, I would simply type C colon and press ENTER, and that would take me back to to the C Drive and it takes me right back to the same folder that I would I was in before it remembers. The folder that that I was in previously now on your computer. Everyone should have a VDI, so let’s go ahead and all of us open our command on interface and move to our V Drive and you would simply type V. Colon and press enter and now you’re working from your V Drive so again, this is how we move between our disks on our computers.
Now, what if we wanted to look at the files and folders within our V Drive? How would we look at the files and folders that are located on the V Drive? Well, we’re going to use a command called dir and you can go ahead and type dir on your command line. Interface, dir is going to list all of our folders in our files. You know back before there were folders.
We called all of our folders directories and the dir command is actually the directory command by typing, dir and pressing enter. It will list or display all of the files and folders that are on our V Drive and you can adjust the size of your windows command line interface like by pulling on the bottom of it. This will adjust your command line window and make it larger. If we scroll up, if I scroll up here on my window, you can see there’s a lot of files and folders listed here. So here I was, I was at the V Drive and I typed dir and I pressed enter and we’re going to see it displays the directory of V or all the files and folders on our V Drive.
These are the files listed here. We’Ve got the ast new, it shows it as 148 bytes. It always displays the size first, it shows the date and the time it was created the size, and this is the file name. So these are files. All these are files on the V Drive.
You see a dir in front of a name. This means it’s a folder or a directory, so we’ve got a data folder, that’s on our V Drive. If I continue to scroll down here, you can see we have another directory called the game’s directory, so we have more files and another directory called level. One matter of fact we’re going to be using level 1 in here a minute I continue to scroll down and you can see we have other directories and other files. So there’s a lot of files and folders here on our V Drive, so any any any Drive or any folder we’re in.
If we want to look at the contents of that directory of that folder or that drive, we simply type dir and it’s displayed now. What? If we want to go look at other files and folders if we want to go, look in other directories and other folders and see what’s in there well, we use a command called change directories. So remember, if I scroll up here, we had a directory up here called level 1, let’s move into that one. So if I wanted to get into that folder and go look, what was in the level 1 folder, I would simply type CD which stands for change.
Directories and then the folder name level 1, and you should be able to do this on your computer and press ENTER, and you can see that now we are working from the level 1 folder. We are inside the level 1 folder. I can type CLS. Excuse me, the CLS command will clear our display and I’ll press ENTER. That clears our display and make it more organized and again we have our disc we’re working from our disappear.
I’Ve and then now we’re in the level 1 folder. So let’s go look at the files and folders within the level: 1 folder again we would type dir to look at this I’ll press dir and you can see that we have one file called hello dot txt, it’s 80 bytes. It was created. 221 note. 9.
9 mm at 4:30, 9 p.m.
And we also have another directory called level 2. So let’s go into level 2 and look at that directory. So we’re going to change directories we’re going to CD change directories to level and we’re going to press ENTER and you can see now.
Our path is changed to the level 2 folder and if we want to look inside the level 2 folder, we’ll type dir and press ENTER, and we can see again more files and folders. We’Ve got another Hollow dot. Txt file and we’ve got a directory called level 3. I also want to point out here that we’ve got two other directories: we’ve got the dot in the dot dot. These are markers for the Windows command line interface, the dot actually just represents the directory, we’re in or the folder or in the dot dot tells the command-line interface that we have a folder above or a parent folder above the folder that we’re in ok.
These you don’t ever use these directories. We don’t go into these directories. These are just markers for our command line interface program. Ok, so now, let’s go into the level 3 folder, which is a subfolder over a level 2 folder. So we’re going to type CD change directories to level 3 level 3 and press ENTER, and now you can see that we are working from the V level: 1 level, 2 level, 3 subfolder, I’m going to type CLS to clear our display and then I’m going to Type dir and press Enter to see what files and folders might be in the level 3 folder again this time we don’t have any directories.
We just have one hello dot txt file. Now what if we want to move up the directory chain? What if we want to move from level 3 up to level 2? How would we do this? Well again, we’re going to use our change directories command, but this time instead of typing the folder name, we’re going to type the dot dot.
Now remember, I said that the dot dot tells the command-line interface that there’s a folder, a parent folder, a folder above the folder we’re in so if I simply type dot dot. This represents the folder above the folder we’re in and I press ENTER. You can see that we have moved now to the level 2 folder. If I want to move up to the level 1 folder, I would simply go up. Let’S change directories, dot, dot, press enter and now I’m working from the level 1 folder.
So that’s how we move up and down our disk file in folder structure. Now I’m going to go ahead and move back again to the level 2 folder. How do we do that change directories? This time we have to type in the name of the folder, and now we’ve moved back to the level 2 folder. If I want to go to the level 3 folder I’ll type CD and go back to the level 3 folder press ENTER and I’m working from the level 3 folder, now there’s going to be times that we want to jump all the way back to the root Drive to the V Drive, how are we going to get back to the V Drive quickly and easily?
Well, there’s a command that you can type called CD again we’re going to change directories and this time we’re just going to type the backslash. The backslash will take us directly back to the V Drive or what they call the root of the disk. The root of the drive? Ok, so this is how we move within our command-line interface. We have our disks and our folders and to move around we’re going to use the dir command to look at the files and folders within a drive or a folder.
We’Re going to use the CD and the folder name and press ENTER to move down our chain into our sub folders, to move up the folder chain, we’re going to type CD dot dot and to move back to our root drive, we’re going to type CD backslash And that’ll take us to our root now before we move on and move into more the more details of our command-line interface and the commands we’re going to be working with. I think it’s important for us to look at our our Windows operating systems, startup process. We must understand the boot process of Windows, so we can more fully understand our disk file and folder structure and how commands will work within the Windows operating system. So let’s go ahead and look at the windows boot process before we move on to more details of our command-line interface, okay, everyone! Now that we’re getting comfortable with this disc file and folder structure, it’s going to be very important for us to understand how Windows works.
You know the Windows operating system is installed on our hard drive and one of the best ways to understand the Windows operating system and how it interfaces with a disc is to see how Windows starts up or what we call the boot up process. So let’s go ahead and see how Windows starts up utilizing our disks, our files in that folder structure, okay, so here’s a normal computer. Okay in this computer tower, we have a hard drive or what we call the C Drive on our hard drive or C Drive. We have the Windows operating system, the Windows, operating systems, program files and folders are all stored on this hard drive. Now, also on our computer tower, we have a cd-rom, drive a floppy drive, but what happens when we press that power button?
How does Windows start up or what we say? How does Windows boot up? Let’S take a look at that now, I’m going to go ahead and spin our computer case around and we’re going to look inside the computer and see how Windows starts up now when we press that power button. What happens well, the first thing that happens is power. Is applied to this motherboard now this circuit board, that’s installed in the back of this computer is called a motherboard when we press the power button, power is applied to that motherboard and that motherboard then executes a program.
That’S stored on a small chip. That program is called bias. Vaio stands for basic input/output system. If I move the camera up just a little bit, maybe you can see a little bit better. This is our BIOS chip.
Now this chip is not always in the same place on every motherboard and sometimes they’re kind of hard to find, but this chip contains our basic input/output system that is part of the startup process for the computer. Now, what is BIOS do one of the first things BIOS does is it does what’s called the power-on self-test or what we call post now this test includes checking many of the components on our computer. It checks for a cd-rom, it checks for our memory. It checks for us, I’m sorry, a CPU, a cd-rom memory, a hard drive, it checks for a keyboard and a mouse matter of fact. The next time you turn on your computer watch, your keyboard and you’ll see the lights flash on your keyboard.
This is post testing. The different components and actually testing to see if your keyboard is there. If your keyboard wasn’t there you’re more than like, you would get a message saying: keyboard failure. Okay, so what happens is? Is we press the power button on the front of the computer, which applies power to the motherboard which executes a program called bias?
Bias execute another program called post which tests some of the components the next thing BIOS does is. It looks for a Windows operating system. Now the Windows operating systems is, of course, installed on a hard drive and BIOS looks to a special spot on the hard drive, or we call a special sector of the hard drive and that special sector is called the Master Boot Record that master boot record is Created when window is installed on the hard drive, this Master Boot Record contains the boot code that will load Windows, so BIOS goes ahead and looks for the Master, Boot Record and executes or runs this boot code. When that code runs Windows is then loaded from the hard drive into memory and that’s how Windows loads up or boots up now, what is this memory now? Let me take out our memory stick and we’ll take a look at memory.
Here’S a memory stick. We also have another one right here: okay, now, when Bias executes the boot code, the boot code then loads the Windows operating system into memory. Why does it do that? Well, memory is much faster when the computer needs to read and write and execute and do processing doing that all from the memory is much faster. When we go to run a game, we will copy the game from the harddrive into memory and then the game will run ok, we load the game into memory, so everything runs much faster in memory.
So, as Windows starts or loads up, we see the scroll bar going across the bottom of the screen, and that is Windows loading into memory. That’S why we have to wait for Windows to load or load it up into memory now the same thing applies when windows shuts down when windows shuts down, we click start and shut down, and then it’s a slow shutdown process process. Basically, what’s happened is the windows operating system is unloading from memory and all the changed files are being saved back to the hard drive and then the computer shuts down. Ok, so let’s review how Windows starts up the boot process. You press the power button.
Power is applied to the motherboard. The basic input output up program starts. It does post our power-on self-test test, all our components, then bios looks for the Master Boot Record of the hard drive execute the boot code. The boot code, then loads windows into memory, and we watch windows start up until we get to our Start button and our stop. Now, let’s see how it really looks on a screen on a computer screen as its booting up okay.
So, let’s go ahead and boot up windows. Now, when I press this power button, remember the first thing: we’re going to see is the BIOS program start and the BIOS program is going to do post our power-on self-test. It’S going to check the hard drive memory, keyboard, mouse and other things once the post is done. It’S going to then look to the Master Boot Record and it’s going to execute the boot code, which will begin the windows loading process. So let me go ahead and start the computer and start the boot up process, so I go ahead and click on start BIOS, tarts and what I’ve done now is I press the pause key by pressing the pause key on my keyboard.
I’Ve actually paused BIOS in the middle of its post operation. So we can see here who has made our BIOS program. Ok, the BIOS program is the ami BIOS and it’s made by american megatrends as bio started. Up at then executed, post, power-on, self-test and it checked ram. You can see a check ram at five pound 512 megabytes.
Okay. It then went out and found a hard drive at auto-detected, a hard drive. It looked for a second hard drive but didn’t find one. It found a cd-rom drive and if I wouldn’t have pressed the pause key on my keyboard, it probably would have gone out and done other things like check the keyboard and check the mouse and other things. And then, once post was done, it would have gone to the hard drive and looked at the sector on the hard drive where the Master Boot Record was located inside the Master Boot Record.
It would have executed the boot code, which would have started the windows startup or loading process. So let me go ahead and start the computer again and we’ll watch the whole process. Okay, so I’m going about to press the start button here we go. I press the start button and we see BIOS tart. It’S checked the hard drives check memory check the keyboard mouse, it’s finished our post process.
Now it’s looking to the hard drive looking at the Master Boot Record, executing the boot code and now Windows is beginning to load into memory. Now remember as Windows, loads into memory, there’s a lot of application and system files that load into memory that make up the Windows operating system and we can see the scroll byte here. That’S what it’s that’s, what it’s doing, we’re actually loading the Windows operating system from the hard drive into memory and we’re getting it to be displayed on our screen. Now it should be up shortly. Windows is continuing to load, continue to load system files and program files.
It’S gone ahead and loaded the side bar it’s loaded, a gadget and now windows is just about completely loaded into memory and now we’re able to click on our start button and execute our programs click on all programs. We can click on accessories. We can click on our command, prompt and start doing our command-line interface. We can click on Windows Explorer and look at our folders files and our disks or our hard drives. Now the same process works when we shut down the computer.
If I click on the start, button go over here and click on the little arrow and click on shutdown. The windows operating system, copies all the system, files and folders. Anything that’s changed and copies them all back to the hard drive once those files have been copied back to the hard drive successfully windows will shut down. So that’s basically the windows boot up process now that we know the windows boot up process. Let’S proceed back to the windows, command line and continue to look at the windows, command line interface.
Ok, so let’s go ahead and finish up. Chapter 1 by looking at these windows commands a little closer now. What are Windows commands well. Windows commands are nothing more than programs or applications that run on our computer. Now.
What are some other examples of programs that run on a computer? Well, the first one might be windows calculator. If I click on start, all programs, click on accessories and then click on calculator. We’Ve now just started our windows calculator program. Another program we might want to run would be Microsoft.
Paint if I click on start all programs accessories you can see here. We have Microsoft Paint. I click on that. It starts our Microsoft Paint program. Another program I’d like to show you would be Windows Explorer again.
I can click on start all programs, accessories and here’s Windows Explorer. This is another program that we can start on. Our computer and with Windows Explorer, of course, we can examine our disks. Our drives our files in our folder structure and the last program. I’D like to start would be our windows command-line interface.
This is also a program that runs on our computer, then click on start. All programs accessories and here’s our command prompt, go ahead and click on that and the windows command line interface is a program that runs on our computer. Now, how could we start these programs like calculator mspaint? What is Explorer? Can we start these programs from our windows?
Command-Line interface and, of course the answer is yes, so how would I start the calculator program from my Windows? Command line interface? Well, very simply also, I would have to do is type C, al C Exe, the CIL Exe. This is a file that’s located on our computer, it’s an executable or a program file. This is the file that actually starts the calculator program.
If I type that executable file in there and press Enter you can see, it starts our calculator program. How could I start our ms paint program? Well again, we have an executable file, that’s on our hard drive in one of the folders and if I type MSP a int exe, that is the executable file. That starts our paint program simply by pressing enter I’ve executed. That file and now paint runs on our computer.
The next one would be our Windows Explorer. Can I start Windows Explorer from the command line and again, if I know the executable file, I can execute or start the Windows Explorer program. So I type in the executable file press ENTER and now Windows Explorer starts up. So if we look at the windows, commands windows commands are nothing more than programs, just as our Explorer dot exe and our M is paint. These are also programs that run on our computer.
So when I type dir, this is a program that we’re going to execute on our computer. That’S going to display the contents of the Mike folder and if I go ahead and press Enter, you see that that program now has run we’ve executed it just like. We executed the paint program or the calculator program and it’s displayed a list of our files and folders that are located in the mind again. Another Windows command would be our CLS command and I’ve typed CLS down here again. This is another program that runs on our computer.
If I press ENTER it’s going to just simply this programs going to run, and it’s going to clear our display, I press, ENTER and now the display is cleared. So our windows commands are nothing more than programs that help us do certain things. You’Ll remember from our introduction. We had a couple other commands that we were running. One of them was pain.
I typed ping P ing exe. This was a program that was able to ping or send packets of data to another computer. So if I type ping – and I type the IP address of another computer ping – is sent a packet of data to cross our network over to another computer and our computer is reply back so ping again is a program and when we type in ping it executes This executable file and it executes the ping program. Another program that we ran in our introduction to the Windows command line interface, was our IP config command. If I type in IP conf IG this exe.
This is the file that’s located on our computer, that when executed displays the IP configuration of the computer that we’re working on so I type it in I press Enter, and here we have our IP configuration. So the windows commands our programs that run and do something on our computer. Now I’m going to go ahead and type CLS our command to clear the screen. Now, there’s two important distinctions in Windows commands there’s two different types of Windows commands, there’s internal commands and then there’s external commands. Now an example of an internal Windows command would be commands like dir, CLS and CD.
The CD command course changes directories. These commands are internal commands, and these commands are loaded into our computer’s memory when our computer boots up or when our computer starts up. If you were to search through the files and folders on your computer, you would not find the internal commands. They do not have an exe file. There is not a file on the computer that we can execute, but these commands are stored in our computer’s memory and are accessible.
So when I type dir at our command line interface, this command is loaded in memory and it automatically runs and displays our directory listing or the files and folders are listed in our Mike folder. These are internal plans stored in memory and they’re not stored on our hard drive. Now, in contrast to our internal commands, we have external commands. External commands would be a command like ping ping Exe. Now the ping dot exe command is actually a file stored on our computer.
So when I go to execute the ping command and I’ll go ahead and type an IP address in of the computer, I want to ping. The computer has to go look in the files and folders on our hard drive and execute this file that will go ahead and send the package to this computer and I’ll go ahead. Do that now, so our computer has gone and looked through the files and folders on a computer found ping DXE executed that file and then sent the packets to to the computer with this IP address, and it reply back same thing with another example of an external Command would be our IP config command IP Co and FIGU Exe. That’S actually the file name of the executable file that will display our IP configuration again. It’S an external command because it’s stored on our hard drive and not stored in the memory of our computer.
I’Ll go ahead and press that and we again can see our our IP configuration so remember that internal commands are loaded in memory in our stored in memory and that’s how the computer is able to execute them. Whereas external commands have executable program files that are stored somewhere on our hard drive in a folder or on a dry and when we go to execute those commands, the windows operating system or the interface, let’s go out, find that command and then execute it. Okay, so that wraps up chapter one of the Windows command line interface,